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Geography

At Preston Primary School, our Geography curriculum aims to deliver a high quality education where the children are inspired to learn about the physical and human world in which they live and are prepared for the world beyond their classroom. Their curiosity about the world and the knowledge they acquire at Preston ought to remain with them for the rest of their lives. Our children will learn about, appreciate and acquire a love and respect for the beautiful area in which they live by visiting places within and learning about the North East and our immediate locality. The children will become good global citizens and will gain a comprehensive understanding of our wider world and the people and cultures that inhabit it.

Human and Physical Geography

In Early Years the children will be encouraged to
Talks about why things happen and how things work.Can talk about some of the things they have observed such as plants, animals, natural and found objects.
Developing an understanding of growth, decay and changes over time. Shows care and concern for living things and the environment.
Looks closely at similarities, differences, patterns and change.They make observations of animals and plants and explain why some things occur, and talk about changes.
Key Stage One this then is built upon through studying
Identify seasonal and daily weather patterns in the United Kingdom and the location of hot and cold areas of the world in relation to the Equator and the North and South Poles.
Use basic geographical vocabulary to refer to: key physical features, including: beach, cliff, coast, forest, hill, mountain, sea, ocean, river, soil, valley, vegetation, season and weather.
Key human features, including: city, town, village, factory, farm, house, office, port, harbour and shop.
Understand geographical similarities and differences through studying the human and physical geography of a small area of the United Kingdom, and of a small area in a contrasting non-European country.
In Key Stage Two this is then built upon through study of
Identify the position and significance of latitude, longitude, Equator, Northern Hemisphere, Southern Hemisphere, the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, Arctic and Antarctic Circle, the Prime/Greenwich Meridian and time zones (including day and night).
Understand geographical similarities and differences through the study of human and physical geography of a region of the United Kingdom, a region in a European country, and a region in North or South America.
Describe and understand key aspects of: physical geography, including: climate zones, biomes and vegetation belts, rivers, mountains, volcanoes and earthquakes, and the water cycle.
Human geography, including: types of settlement and land use, economic activity including trade links, and the distribution of natural resources including energy, food, minerals and water.

Geographical skills and fieldwork

In Early Years the children will be encouraged to
They talk about the features of their own immediate environment and how environments might vary from one another.          
In Key Stage One this then is built upon through studying
Use simple compass directions (north, south, east and west) and locational and directional language [for example, near and far, left and right], to describe the location of features and routes on a map.
Use aerial photographs and plan perspectives to recognise landmarks and basic human and physical features; devise a simple map; and use and construct basic symbols in a key. Use world maps, atlases and globes to identify the United Kingdom and its countries, as well as the countries, continents and oceans studied at this key stage.
Use simple fieldwork and observational skills to study the geography of their school and its grounds and the key human and physical features of its surrounding environment. 
In Key Stage Two this is then built upon through study of
Use maps, atlases, globes and digital/computer mapping to locate countries and describe features studied.
Use the 8 points of a compass, 4- and 6-figure grid references, symbols and key (including the use of Ordnance Survey maps) to build their knowledge of the United Kingdom and the wider world.
Use fieldwork to observe, measure record and present the human and physical features in the local area using a range of methods, including sketch maps, plans and graphs, and digital technologies.

Place and Location Knowledge

In Early Years the children will learn
Comments and asks questions about aspects of their familiar world such as the place where they live or the natural world.Children know about similarities and differences in relation to places, objects, materials and living things.  
In Key Stage One this then is built upon through
Name and locate the world’s 7 continents and 5 oceans
Name, locate and identify characteristics of the 4 countries and capital cities of the United Kingdom and its surrounding seas.  
In Key Stage Two this is then built upon through
Name and locate counties and cities of the United Kingdom, geographical regions and their identifying human and physical characteristics, key topographical features (including hills, mountains, coasts and rivers), and land-use patterns; and understand how some of these aspects have changed over time.
Locate the world’s countries, using maps to focus on Europe (including the location of Russia) and North and South America, concentrating on their environmental regions, key physical and human characteristics, countries, and major cities.

Geographical Skills

In whatever objective is taught there will be a progression of skills developed in EACH of the five areas throughout the area being studied – see jigsaw

  1. Geographical vocabulary and appropriate geographical terminology
  2. Developing an understanding of the location – using progressively more complex map skills  
  3. To be able to know and understand human and physical geographical features of the place of study  
  4. To be able to compare similarities and differences and then find connections and contrasts between locations studied  
  5. To know basic geographical facts e.g. parts of UK, continents, oceans etc.  

We will base some of this around the concept of an address label – each year progressively getting wider.

The following year group takeaways are arranged into the three areas of Geography – Human & Physical, Geographical Skills and Fieldwork and Place & Location Knowledge. Each of the three areas are covered in every year group.

Nursery

  1. To know my house number or name and that this forms the very start of my address.
  2. To show concern for the environment and know why it is wrong to drop litter.
  3. To ask and answer questions about where I live and be able to say something that I like about it.

Reception

  1. To know the name of my street making links to prior learning about my door number and that this forms the first part of my address.
  2. To compare my house front with another house front and say one thing that is different and one thing that is the same.
  3. To draw a simple map of my street and indicate on it where my house is.
  4. To compare my home to the home of someone from a different country and say one thing that is different and one thing that is the same.
  5. To know about similarities and differences in relation to places by talking about the features of my own immediate environment demonstrating how and why environments might vary from one another.

Year 1

  1. To know that I live in/my school is located in the suburb of Eaglescliffe and relate this to my house number and street name from prior learning.
  2. To describe the position of an object or place using the directional language, next to, left, right, near and far.
  3. To label an aerial image of the school and talk about its location in Eaglescliffe and in relation to the human and physical features in the local area.
  4. To know that maps give us information about places and draw one of the school based on an aerial photograph.
  5. To understand that physical features are the Earth’s natural features (beach, cliff, forest) and human features focus on how humans have affected the landscape by building and changing things (school, church, train station).

Year 2

  1. To know that I live in/my school is located in the town of Stockton-on-Tees and relate this to my house number, street name and Eaglescliffe from prior learning.
  2. To identify and use the four points of the compass (North, East, South and West) and create a diagram or model of a compass.
  3. To use prior knowledge and the terminology ‘human and physical features’ to name and locate features and routes on a map of my local area such as the River Tees and the Tees Barrage. Contrast this with a small area in a non-European country.
  4. To use world maps, atlases and globes to identify the UK as well as the countries and continents studied and to draw/devise a map of the local area using and constructing basic symbols in a key.
  5. To name and locate the 4 countries and capital cities of the UK, the world’s 7 continents and 5 oceans relating this to the seasonal and daily weather patterns in the UK.

Year 3

  1. To know that I live in, and my school is located in, Teesside and that our neighbouring counties are North Yorkshire and County Durham. Relate this to prior learning adding to the lines of my address.
  2. To give directions or talk about a location using the 4 points of the compass and to know that the 8 points of the compass are North, North East, East, South East, South, South West, West and North West.
  3. To know that a county is an area of the UK containing cities, towns and villages. The UK is divided into different counties and that Yorkshire (which includes North Yorkshire) is the biggest county in the UK.
  4. To talk about some of the similarities and differences between the human and physical features of North Yorkshire including the national parks and the North Yorkshire Coast.
  5. To develop my map skills and begin to use an ordnance survey map to locate some important human and physical features of an area including the local landmark, ‘The Angel of the North’.

Year 4

  1. To know that I live in, and my school is located in, England and relate this to prior learning adding to the lines of my address.
  2. To build upon my knowledge of counties and to name 4 counties local to my area e.g. North Yorkshire (Yorkshire), County Durham, Tyne & Wear and Northumberland.
  3. To know about different land uses in relation to human and physical geography understanding how and why land use has changed and evolved over time. To name at least 4 human and 4 physical features of the North East.
  4. To identify at least 6 key symbols on an ordnance survey map and begin to read and use 4 figure grid references.
  5. To know at least 4 similarities and differences between York and Eaglescliffe relating this to human and physical features.

Year 5

  1. To know that I live in, and my school is located in, the United Kingdom (UK) and relate this to prior learning adding to the lines of my address.
  2. To know that a river is a physical feature of the landscape and be able to locate 10 significant rivers of the UK on an ordnance survey map, confidently using the 8 points of the compass.
  3. To use 4 figure grid references with confidence to locate different features on an ordnance survey map, including High Force, and understand and begin to use 6 figure grid references.
  4. To understand and describe that a river has 3 stages (upper, middle and lower) naming at least one physical feature in each stage. To relate knowledge of rivers to key aspects of the water cycle.
  5. To understand some of the key land use and settlements along the River Tees and how it has changed over time – its course was straightened in the early 19th century making it more accessible for ships between Stockton and Middlesbrough. To present the River Tees using a sketch map from an ordnance survey map.

Year 6

  1. To know that I live in, and my school is located in, the United Kingdom (UK) and relate this to prior learning adding to the lines of my address.
  2. To know that a river is a physical feature of the landscape and be able to locate 10 significant rivers of the UK on an ordnance survey map, confidently using the 8 points of the compass.
  3. To use 4 figure grid references with confidence to locate different features on an ordnance survey map, including High Force, and understand and begin to use 6 figure grid references.
  4. To understand and describe that a river has 3 stages (upper, middle and lower) naming at least one physical feature in each stage. To relate knowledge of rivers to key aspects of the water cycle.
  5. To understand some of the key land use and settlements along the River Tees and how it has changed over time – its course was straightened in the early 19th century making it more accessible for ships between Stockton and Middlesbrough. To present the River Tees using a sketch map from an ordnance survey map.

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